ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND MACHINE LEARNING (ML) IN INDIA || LN-TECHINFO
REFERENCE AND BACKGROUND
For the last few years, artificial intelligence has remained in equal discussion on various causes and issues. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science whose job is to make intelligent machines. Recently, the government think tank NITI Aayog and Google have agreed that both with the aim of promoting India’s Artificial Intelligence-AI and Machine Learning-ML ecosystem. They will work together on several initiatives, which will help to create an ecosystem of artificial intelligence in the country. NITI Aayog has been entrusted with the responsibility of developing technologies like AI and preparing a national program for research. On this responsibility, the NITI Aayog is developing a National Action Policy on Artificial Intelligence along with the National Data and Analytics Portal,It may be noted that DeepMind, Google’s artificial intelligence company, is working on several projects in collaboration with the British National Health Service.
Artificial intelligence and machine learning are generally considered synonymous, but this is not the case. The difference between these two is further clarified, so that confusion does not arise.
What is Artificial Intelligence?
In simplest terms, Artificial Intelligence means developing the ability to think and understand and make decisions in a machine. Artificial intelligence is considered to be the most advanced form of computer science and it creates a mind in which the computer can think … a computer brain that can think like humans.
Types of Artificial Intelligence
• Purely Reactive
• Limited Memory
• Brain Theory
• Self Conscious
• Artificial intelligence began in the 1950s. Artificial intelligence means – an intellectual
• ability developed in an artificial (artificial) way.
• According to John McCarthy, the father of Artificial Intelligence, it is the science and
engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs,
that is, the intelligence displayed by machines.
• Through this, a computer system or robotic system is created, which is attempted to be
run on the same logic, on the basis of which the human brain works.
• Artificial intelligence is a way of making computer-controlled robots or intelligence –
thinking software like humans.
• It studies about how the human brain thinks and learns while solving a problem, how it makes decisions and how it works.
In Hollywood, films like Artificial Intelligence, Star Wars, Eye Robot, Terminator, Blade Runner etc. have been made, you can get an idea that what is Artificial Intelligence after all! Artificial intelligence can also be seen in famous actor Rajinikanth’s film ‘Robot’ in India. However, in 1997, a computer system with artificial intelligence defeated Gary Kasporov of Russia, one of the greatest chess players of all time.
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This is how Artificial Intelligence started
• Artificial intelligence began in the 1950s, but its importance was recognized in the 1970s.
• Japan was the first to take this initiative and in 1981 launched a scheme called
Fifth Generation .
• In it, a 10-year program for the development of supercomputers was presented.
• After this, other countries also paid attention to this. Britain created a project called
‘Elvi’ for this .
• European Union countries also introduced a program called ‘Esprit’ .
• Subsequently in 1983, some private organizations jointly established a consortium
‘Micro-Electronics and Computer Technology’ to develop advanced technologies
applicable to Artificial Intelligence, such as Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits .
Where are the usage happening?
If the present phase is called a period of experiments being conducted on Artificial Intelligence, it will not be an exaggeration.
Key Applications of Artificial Intelligence
• Computer Gaming
• Natural Language Processing
• Expert System
• Vision System
• Speech Recognition
• Intelligent Robot
Besides, running a very complex system … preparing new medicines … inventing new chemicals … from mining industry to space … from stock market to insurance companies. there is no such field of human life left Which does not interfere with artificial intelligence.
Let’s try to understand it from this example …
• Today, the movement of airplanes around the world is entirely dependent on computers.
• Which plane will go when, through which path … Where will it deliver the goods.
• All these machines decide and give instructions. That is, artificial intelligence is being used
• for air traffic control.
This means that the work which takes a lot of time for a person or the work which is complicated and difficult can be dealt in the chutes with the help of these mechanical minds.
Prospects of Artificial Intelligence in India
• By making significant progress in the fields of robotics, virtual realty, cloud technology,
• big data, artificial intelligence and machine learning and other technologies, the
prospects of the fourth industrial revolution in India are beginning to be explored in the near future.
• According to NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant, artificial intelligence is going to change
• the way we do business in the country. It will be used exclusively in innovations for
the social and inclusive welfare of the country.
• The time is coming for the country to accept future technologies such as artificial
intelligence and machine learning to enhance capacity in health care, improve
education, develop innovative governance systems for citizens and improve overall
economic productivity of the country .
• In such a situation, Niti Aayog’s partnership with Google will start many training
initiatives, support startups and Ph.D. AI research will be promoted through scholarships.
Efforts by the government
• A committee has been constituted under the chairmanship of NITI Aayog Vice
Chairman Rajiv Kumar to outline the Artificial Intelligence Program at the national level.
• Apart from the representatives of the government, academics and industry will also be
represented in it.
• In the current budget, the government has made a provision of $ 480 million for
Fifth Generation Technology Startups , which include Artificial Intelligence, Machine
Learning Internet of Things, 3-D Printing and Block Chains.
• In addition, the government plans to promote research, training, human resources and
• skill development in the fields of Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Digital Manufacturing, Big Data Intelligence, Real Time Data and Quantum Communication.
7-Point Strategy on Artificial Intelligence
Earlier in October last year, the central government formulated a 7-point strategy, which
would form the basis of India’s strategic plan to use artificial intelligence. Prominent among
Developing methods for human machine interaction.
• To build a competent workforce with Artificial Intelligence and R&D.
• Ensuring the security of artificial intelligence systems.
• Understanding and working on the ethical, legal and social implications of Artificial
• Evaluating measurements by using artificial intelligence technology as a standard and
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Caution is also necessary.
Artificial intelligence will change our way of living and functioning in a big way. Techniques such as robotics and virtual reality will see revolutionary changes in production and manufacturing methods. According to a study by Oxford University, one and a half million jobs will be lost in the next two decades in America alone.
Perhaps in the world of Artificial Intelligence, we will deal with employment-related challenges, but the biggest threat will be difficult to avoid. Therefore, it is clear that as many advantages as machines with artificial intelligence, there are as many dangers as well. Experts say that if thinking robots understand humans for some reason or circumstance, they can pose a threat to humanity. All machines and weapons can revolt. Such a situation has been imagined in Hollywood’s films like ‘Terminator’.
Intelligent robots are being created
The latest invention of this time shows the intelligence of artificial intelligence machines. Robots are made effective and intelligent with the help of artificial intelligence. These types of robots have made their place abroad and in many big companies of the country and are doing the work, which the workers and technical staff experience a lot of difficulty in doing.
Saudi Arabia’s Intelligent Robot Sophia
• The robot, named Sophia, was created by Hanson Robotics founder David Hanson in
• Saudi Arabia granted it its full citizenship on 25 October 2017 and is the world’s first
robot to acquire citizenship of any country.
• Sophia’s expressions are just like humans and she can also recognize the facial
expressions of others.
• Sophia can do all the work like humans and has her own ideas, except interacting
with anyone with her intelligence.
• Sofia has got all such rights of Saudi Arabia, which the government there confers on
• Whenever Sophia is wrong, she can also be prosecuted according to Saudi Arabian law.
• If another person or citizen does something wrong with Sofia, Sophia can also file a
lawsuit according to Saudi Arabian law.
India has arrived Sofia: When Asia’s largest Tech Fest-2017 was held in Mumbai,
robot Sophia also came in its tele fest. Sofia adopted the Indian style in the event and
the program was dressed in white and orange colored sari in Indian costumes. Sophia
greeted the people present there by saying ‘Namaste India, I am Sophia’. At Tech
Fest-2017, three thousand people were curious about how Sophia talks and answers
questions. Sophia gave the answers to all the questions very cleverly and effectively.
Sophia spoke in Hindi to the people present there.
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What is Machine Learning?
Like Artificial Intelligence is used for computer programs that try to solve problems that humans can easily do, such as looking at a photo and telling about it. Similarly, another work that humans can easily do is to learn from examples… and machine learning programs also try to do the same, that is, to tell computers to learn from examples. For this a lot of algorithms etc. have to be collected, so that computers can learn to guess better. But now in order to teach machines faster with less algorithms, efforts are being made to give more common sense to machines, which in technical language is called ‘regularization’ .
Let’s try to make it more clear with an example …
• In the Hollywood film Minority Report, the policeman, starring Tom Cruise, apprehends
• future criminals before breaking the law, based on information from three seemingly
In fact, it is more difficult to make such a prediction, but with the increasing ability of computers to make predictions, now such a possibility does not seem to be limited to the imagination. A machine learning program can make remarkably accurate forecasts. It works on the principle of finding huge amounts of data.
Let us try to explain it with this example …
• Take cleanliness only in a restaurant. This machine learning program identifies which
factors are not found in sight, but once the machine is trained, it will be able to assess
the risk of the restaurant getting dirty.
In the world of AI
technology, artificial intelligence and machine learning are in the news nowadays. That is why Google is trying to make people have maximum information about Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. In view of this, Google has started a website called Learn with Google AI , so that people can understand how Artificial Intelligence technology works and what is the principle of machine learning. Google has started a machine learning crash course prepared by experts for this.
The development of artificial intelligence technology reflects the diversity of different human perspectives and needs. Google AI is providing this information to everyone for free and this course is for all those who want to know about machine learning. Learn with Google AI also has an online course facility. You can get this information through the feature video and visualization of Google’s machine learning expert. The duration of this course is 15 hours, in which Google’s lecturer will deliver the lecture. This course has been prepared by Google’s engineering education team.
Conclusion: The concept of Artificial Intelligence is very old. In Greek myths there are stories related to the concept of ‘mechanical man’, ie a person who mimics one of our behavior. Early European computers were designed as ‘logical machines’ i.e. they developed basic math, memory-like capabilities and were used as mechanical brains. But as technology advanced and calculations became complex, the concept of artificial intelligence also changed. Under this, efforts were made to develop them like human behavior, so that they would be able to do more and more human work in the way we usually do.
Google CEO Sundar Pichai says that we have learned to use fire and electricity for the benefit of humanity, but it is necessary to overcome its bad aspects. Similarly, artificial intelligence is also a similar technique and can also be used in the treatment of cancer or to overcome the problems associated with climate change. The creation of Artificial Intelligence is one of the biggest events in the history of our civilization. But the truth is that if it does not find a way to avoid its risk, it can have serious consequences, because despite all the benefits, artificial intelligence has its own dangers. Overall, the rise of a powerful artificial intelligence can be beneficial and harmful for us. At the moment we do not know what its form will be next, that is why more research needs to be done in this context.